- Leptic Podzols: 100%
|Chance||Depth||Drainage||Texture Reaction - pH||Organic Carbon Conductivity - Electrical||Subsoil Cation Exchange||Clay Cation Exchange||Calcium Carbonate - Lime||Gypsum Sodium - Exchangeable|
Soil Triangle - Leptic Podzols
Definition - Leptic Podzols
- Leptic indicates having continuous hard rock between 25 and 100 cm from the soil surface. Podzols (also known as podsols or Spodosols) are the typical soils of coniferous, or boreal forests. They are also the typical soils of eucalypt forests and heathlands in southern Australia. The eluviated soil, which is usually 4-8 cm thick, is low in Fe and Al oxides and humus. It is formed under moist, cool and acidic conditions, especially where the parent material, such as granite or sandstone, is rich in quartz. It is found under a layer of organic material in the process of decomposition, which is usually 5-10 cm thick. In the middle, there is often a thin layer of 0.5 to 1 cm. The bleached soil goes over into a red or redbrown horizon called rusty soil. The colour is strongest in the upper part, and change at a depth of 50 to 100 cm progressively to the part of the soil that is mainly not affected by processes; that is the parent material. Podzols are found in areas that are wet and cold (for example in Northern Ontario or Russia) and also in warm areas such as Florida where sandy soils have fluctuating water tables (humic variant of the northern podzol or Humod). An example of a warm-climate podzol is the Myakka fine sand, state soil of Florida. In Western Europe podzols are developed on heathland, which is a construct of human interference, whereby the vegetation is maintained through grazing and burning. In some British moorlands with podzolic soils there are brown earths preserved under Bronze Age barrows
Description - Loam
- Loams are the most useful "all around" soils; they combine the lightness and earliness of the sands, with the strength and retentiveness of the clays. Loams contain from 40 to 60 per cent, of sand, and 15 to 25 per cent, of clay. They "work up" easily, do not crust or crack, are well supplied with plant food, and, what is chiefly important, water moves through them freely and still they are not leachy. Practically all farm crops grow satisfactorily on a loam. It is especially suitable for potatoes, corn, market-gardening crops, and small fruits; but grasses, cereals, clover, alfalfa, and cotton, find it congenial. It requires no special treatment, except such attention to good tillage, drainage, and the addition of humus as is a necessary part of the best farm practice everywhere. It doesn't matter if peppers are grown in temperate, tropical or subtropical climates as long as they have a relatively dry season, so a good loam that drains well helps to offset a wetter climate. Most fruit trees live longer and produce better when they grow in balanced loam. Citrus trees like good drainage, but they need to be kept moist. Loam is a good choice for citrus
|Soil reference depth||100 mm|
|Calcium carbonate CaCO3 - Lime||0% weight|
|Organic carbon||3.62% weight|
|Cation exchange capacity - clay||65 cmol/kg|
|Cation exchange capacity - soil||16 cmol/kg|
|Clay - percent - weight||13% weight|
|Gravel - percent - volume||24% weight|
|Sand - percent - weight||49% weight|
|Silt - percent - weight||38% weight|
|Electrical conductivity||0.1 dS/m|
|Gypsum content CaSO4||0% volume|
|Soil reaction - pH||5 -log H+|
|Reference bulk density||0.96 kg/dm3|
Conservation tillage systems such as zero tillage cause minimum disturbance to the soil after the previous crop has been harvested. In zero tillage, the ideal is to plant direct into the soil, without hoeing or plowing. Tillage is reduced to ripping planting lines or making holes for planting with a hoe. Crop residues are left in the field to reduce soil erosion, conserve moisture, inhibit weed growth, and act as green manure. Zero tillage is not recommended when disease is present. To manage disease, crop residues must be either removed from the field and destroyed or deeply ploughed to reduce sources of disease infection and spread.
Advantages of conservation tillage include less machinery, labour and fuel, as well as reduced soil erosion and compaction. Disadvantages of conservation tillage include lower soil temperatures, slower germination and emergence when direct sowing is used, slower early growth, delayed competition with weeds, higher incidence of root diseases, heavier crop residue, the possibility of more difficult planter operation, weed spectrum changes, and potential increase of soil insect pests or insects that spend part of their life cycle in the soil (e.g. cutworms, thrips, leafmining flies, grubs). Cultivation exposes these pests to desiccation by the sun heat and to predation by natural enemies.
Green manure legumes create nitrogen in the soil by fixing it from the atmosphere.
Benefits of Green Manure Cover Crops
- Easy to grow
- Increases soil organic matter
- Reduce soil losses from wind and water erosion
- If it is a legume, it can fix nitrogen. When the legume is mature, chopped up and added to the soil, it will add nitrogen to the soil which will be used by later crops on the land.
- The roots of the green manure crops extract nutrients from deep in the soil.
- The deep roots work to break up and aerate the soil
- When the green manure is added to the soil, it works to lighten and loosen the soil to aerate and improve drainage, making the soil healthier for later crops. After tilling in a green manure crop, we see the soil level in the farm beds raise several inches. The soil is loose and no longer compacted.
- Green manure crops include jack beans, perennial peanut, and Mucuna.
- These plants help the main crop by increasing soil fertility by adding nitrogen to the soil by nitrogen fixation.
- They add biomass (organic matter) to the soil.
- As cover crops, they reduce soil loss.
Planting Green Manure Crops
Green manure crops can be planting using intercropping with the main crop or by using crop rotation in which the green manure crop is planted in-between plantings of the main crop. For intercropping, plant the legume seeds in rows between rows of the main crop. Plow the legumes into the soil at the start of the rainy season.
In crop rotation, plant legumes after the main crop has been harvested. The legumes will benefit the field as a cover crop and as green manure. At full biomass maturity, plow the legumes into the soil as green manure for the next crop.
For a source of green manure to the field, cut the legumes at full maturity, shred, and spread over the field.
Preventing Soil Erosion while Adding Nutrients to the Soil
The first step in soil management is preventing the loss, or erosion, of soil. Topsoil is particularly vulnerable to erosion if not protected by plants or mulch or by other measures. The soil that remains after the loss of topsoil is usually less productive, which can result in lower yields. The challenge is to protect soil while using the land for food production and other non-food activities.
Soil erosion is caused mainly by wind and water but also by incorrect cultivation practices. Rain and wind dislodge and then carry away soil particles. Where the soil is bare or the vegetation poor, rainwater does not seep into the soil; instead it runs off and carries with it loose topsoil. Sloping land and light soils with low organic matter content are both prone to erosion. Once eroded, the soil is lost forever.
Soil erosion is a problem in regions with little vegetation, particularly in the semi-arid and arid zones. In the humid tropics, erosion was not considered a problem when the land was in its natural state, because the variety of native plants kept the soils covered at all times. Now, people are clearing more land for agricultural purposes, and the situation has changed. Heavy rains coupled with poor soil management of cultivated areas are now common causes of soil erosion in the humid areas.
Some common forms of water erosion include:
- Sheet erosion: a thin top layer of soil is removed from the soil by the impact of rain. With sheet erosion, small heaps of loose material (e.g. grass) amass between fine lines of sand after a rainstorm. This erosion takes place across a whole garden or field.
- Rill erosion: water flows over minor depressions on the land's surface and cuts small channels into the soil. The erosion takes place along the length of these channels.
- Gully erosion: a gully forms along natural depressions on the soil's surface or on slopes. The head of a gully moves up the slope in the opposite direction of the flow of water. Gullies are symptoms of severe erosion.
This occurs mostly on light soils and bare land. High winds cause severe damage. Wind erosion is a common problem in dry and semi-arid areas, as well as in areas that get seasonal rains.
Unlike water which only erodes on slopes, wind can remove soil from flat land as well as from sloping land; it can also transport the soil particles through the air and deposit them far away. Soils vulnerable to wind erosion are dry, loose, light soils with little or no vegetative cover.
Plowing up and down a slope causes soil erosion. To prevent the loss of soils, certain measures must be taken.
- clearing only the land to be cultivated;
- planting along a contour and using grassed channels;
- establishing windbreaks and bench terraces;
- plowing along a contour;
- planting cover crops and mulching.
When clearing land for cultivation, the beneficial effects of certain trees and plants should be considered. Some trees should be left, since they may supply food, medicine, shade or, when they shed their leaves, organic matter.
Feeding the Soil
One of the main goals in growing crops is to make the soil fertile and well structured, so a wide range of useful crops can grow and produce well. In order to grow, plants require nutrients that are present in organic matter, such as nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus, as well as minerals and trace elements.
If the natural fertility or structure of the soil is poor, it must be continuously "fed" with organic matter, such as leaves and manure, in order to improve its productivity and water-holding capacity. As organic matter decomposes, it becomes food for plants. It also improves soil structure by loosening heavy clay and binding sandy soil.
Feeding the soil with organic matter is especially important in the early years of cultivating the land. Organic matter (i.e. waste from plants and livestock) can be collected and buried in the soil, where it will decompose. The organic matter also can be used to make compost, which can be applied to the soil to enrich its fertility.
The roots of legumes contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Therefore, intercropping or rotating legumes with other crops helps maintain or improve the nitrogen content of the soil, and this enhances the growth of other plants.
Healthy plants yield more and are better protected from insects and disease. The application of organic matter, such as compost, animal manure, green manure and soil from anthills, improves soil structure and adds nutrients to the soil.
Long-Term Soil Management
The ideal way to protect and feed the soil is to apply organic matter or compost regularly and to keep the soil covered with plants. A multilayer cropping system in which a mixture of trees and other plants with different maturity times are grown together will protect the soil and recycle nutrients. Leguminous plants such as cowpeas, groundnuts and beans are particularly useful in providing continuous nutrients for crops.
Apply Organic Matter to Soil to Improve the Crop
Plants can contain up to 90 percent water. The water is absorbed mainly through the root system of the plant. With the water, plant nutrients are absorbed. Healthy roots need air (aeration) for development. Excess water in the soil prevents air from penetrating and damages a plant's roots. Water management is therefore extremely important in regions with good water resources as well as in those where water is scarce.
The water-holding capacity of soil varies according to soil type. Soil with a high content of organic matter has better aeration, better structure and better water-holding capacity. Heavy, sticky soils are too dense to allow air in and water out, so roots cannot breathe and plants can have growth problems. When this kind of soil dries out, it sets like cement, and water takes a long time to soak into it. On the other hand, sandy, coarse-grained soils are too loose to hold water before it drains away. In this kind of soil, without a regular external water supply, a plant's roots cannot find enough water for growth. Regular application of organic matter will improve the ability of both these kinds of soil to hold and release enough water and air. During land preparation for planting, organic materials such as animal manure or compost should be applied to the land such that they are well incorporated into the soil.
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